Monday, December 15, 2003
Voting Security Concerns Rise to New Level
From Bev Harris, author of Black Box Voting:
16 DEC 2003, Seattle WA - This is of national interest. Bev Harris, author of "Black Box Voting" and Andy Stephenson, a democratic candidate for Washington secretary of state, have uncovered new holes in the electoral system in King County and in as many as 14 additional states.

These security breaches affect both the optical scan systems (fill-in-the-dot or draw-the-line) and touch screen voting systems, and may also indicate significant security problems with absentee voting procedures.

At the Tuesday press conference, Harris and Stephenson will distribute a packet of documents to support their findings. Whereas electronic voting concerns have focused on complex issues like cryptographic security and computer source code, the new security flaws uncovered by Harris and Stephenson are more serious and also easier to explain. Because the subject matter is sensitive, reporters will want copies of the original documents to substantiate the findings, and these will be released at the news conference.

This information affects four counties in Washington State and locations in Florida, Georgia, Kansas, Kentucky, California, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, Texas, Maryland and Virginia.

"What we have are two intertwined security breaches which deserve immediate attention from the U.S. Congress," says Stephenson. "We need to address procedural safeguards as soon as possible to put a halt to these problems and prevent them from ever happening again."

A 20-page dossier will provide the specific U.S. locations affected, as well as the details on multiple security breaches which may have compromised the integrity of at least two dozen elections.

I haven't yet got Bev's dossier, but am familiar with at least some of what it will certainly include. All of the "official" studies to date on e-vote security focus almost entirely on the e-vote terminals (DREs) themselves. Bev will be covering the machines that tally the results from these (most certainly Diebold's), and if you are worried about the DREs, you haven't seen the tally machines yet. You could steal a whole state at once from these.

The Press Conference itself: 2 p.m. Tue. December 16 - Seattle Labor Temple - 2800 First Ave. - Seattle. When I get a link to Bev's dossier, I'll add it here.

Thursday, December 11, 2003
"out the yin-yang" and "any after-sale changes should be prohibitively expensive," says "Ken", a Diebold employee, in a memo he wrote on Jan. 3, 2003. Ken is referring to the possibility that Maryland might ask Diebold to retrofit their e-vote machines with ballot printers:
"There is an important point that seems to be missed by all these articles: they already bought the system. At this point they are just closing the barn door. Let's just hope that as a company we are smart enough to charge out the yin if they try to change the rules now and legislate voter receipts."
So just what exactly does "out the yin-yang" mean?
State Board of Elections Administrator Linda H. Lamone told The Gazette last month that Diebold had given a preliminary estimate of $1,000 to $1,200 per machine to add printouts, or up to $20 million for the state's more than 16,000 machines.
So what should the cost of a retrofitted ballot printer be? According to news reports, the cost cited by one of Diebold's competitors was about $500 a machine. This is in line with my previous report, where Palm Beach County (which uses Sequoia e-vote machines) was offered an estimate of about $600 per machine for such a retrofit.

Price gouging, anyone? Thy name is Diebold.

State Board of Elections Administrator Linda H. Lamone (a Democrat) comes in for direct criticism in an earlier (Dec. 18, 2002) e-mail purportedly written by Sue Page, one of Diebold's Maryland project managers:
"Linda Lamone ... makes public statements airing dirty laundry and casting doubt. She's about power and control. She feels powerful when she makes negative comments. What she misses is that her negative comments reflect negatively on her. She should be proud of and support her initiative of a state wide voting change, rather than casting doubt on her own decision."

"There's not much that we can do, other than hope that a new Republican Governor will effect change."
In fact, Lamone, a Democrat, has been battling to keep her job amidst efforts from Gov. Robert L. Ehrlich Jr. (R) to install a Republican elections chief. Four of the five board members would have to vote to remove Lamone; three are Republicans and two are Democrats.
So much for Diebold's claims that it's e-vote machines are secure. It seems that not even their widely-implemented ATMs can withstand the on-slaught of dedicated hackers.

OK, the Diebold ATM people are not the Diebold people who make their e-vote machines -- They're in totally different divisions of Diebold. But here's why it still matters.

Diebold ATMs used to use IBM's OS/2 operating system, but changed over to Microsoft Windows at the urging of their banking customers (for reasons discussed in this article). Diebold Election Systems has always used the Windows operating system (CE) for its e-vote machines.

In vulnerability terms, there is probably nothing inherently wrong with the Windows operating system that is not probably (in some fashion, at least) also wrong in other operating systems. Windows vulnerabilities instead are a function of its own great success; if you are going to spend time hacking, chances are that you are going to try hacking where it willhave the greatest effect; i.e., Windows, a victim of its own success. Security experts agree. Diebold's move to Windows for their ATMs was an "horrendous security mistake", literally an invitation to hackers.

Allow me to get technical. The only thing an operating system offers any computer is an abiltiy to multi-task (run multiple programs simultaneously). Single-use computers (ATMs, e-vote machines, etc.) simply do not require operating systems. The only reason they are used on single-use machines is for cost considerations.

In addition to providing a multi-tasking environment, today's operating systems also come bundled with useful subroutines (in Windows, ".dll" file extensions, a.k.a., application extensions). Subroutines do lots of great things. They refresh your monitor's display, accept keyboard input, manage communications over a modem, and a great deal more. But they can be implemented regardless of the existance of an operating system, and indeed, we did so in the early days of computers. So the manufacturers of single-use computers use operating systems merely for the convenience of the subroutines they provide.

The bottom line is that single-use computers have no need for an operating system. Every functionality demanded of them can be provided without one. While an operating system can also provide communications interfaces (subroutines) at a low cost, the very vulnerabilities offered by operating systems should preclude absolutely their use in single-use secure applications.

And I used to bill $500/day for this. Go figure.

More "Diebold Magic"
This from Bartcop. Strange results from the 2002 election (familiar to some readers) brought to you by Diebold Election Systems:
  • Poll by Atlanta Journal Constitution/WSB-TV of 800 likely voters on Nov. 1 For Georgia Governor

    Roy Barnes (D) 51% up 11
    Sonny Perdue (R) 40%

    ** "Official Results" from the Diebold e-vote machines on Nov. 5

    Roy Barnes (D) 46%
    Sonny Perdue (R) 51% up 5 - that's a 16-point pro-Bush swing

    Was it magic?

  • Poll by Atlanta Journal Constitution Nov. 1 for Georgia Senate

    Max Cleland (D) 49% up 5
    Saxby Chambliss (R) 44%

    ** "Official Results" from the Diebold e-vote machines on Nov. 5

    Max Cleland (D) 46%
    Saxby Chambliss (R) 53% up 7 - that's a 13-point pro-Bush swing

    Was it magic?

  • Poll by MSNBC/Zogby on Nov. 3 for Colorado Senate

    Tom Strickland (D) 53% up 9
    Wayne Allard (R) 44%

    ** "Official Results" from the Diebold e-vote machines on Nov. 5

    Tom Strickland (D) 46%
    Wayne Allard (R) 51% up 5 - that's a 14-point pro-Bush swing

    Was it magic?

  • Minneapolis Star-Tribune Poll on Nov. 3 for Minnesota Senate

    Walter Mondale (D) 46% up 5
    Norm Coleman (R) 41%

    ** "Official Results" from the Diebold e-vote machines on Nov. 5

    Norm Coleman (R) 50%
    Walter Mondale (D) 47% up 3 - that's an 8-point pro-Bush swing

    Was it magic?

  • Poll by St. Louis Dispatch/Zogby on Nov. 3 for Illinois Governor

    Rod Blagojevich (D) 52% up 7
    Jim Ryan (R) 45%

    ** "Official Results" from the Diebold e-vote machines on Nov. 5

    Rod Blagojevich (D) 43%
    Jim Ryan (R) 44% up 1 - that's an 8-point pro-Bush swing

    Was it magic?

  • Poll by Concord, NH Monitor on Nov. 3 for New Hampshire Senate

    Jeanne Shaheen (D) 47% up 1
    John E. Sununu (R) 46%

    ** "Official Results" from the Diebold e-vote machines on Nov. 5

    Jeanne Shaheen (D) 47%
    John E. Sununu (R) 51% up 4 - that's a 5-point pro-Bush swing

    Was it magic?

In just two cases, Diebold e-vote machines delivered office to Democrats against the pre-election polls, but both of these were 3 points or less, well within the polling margin of error.

       Is this magic?

You'll have to scroll down about half way to find this, but it seems that Maria Perez, apparently a registered Democrat, filed papers to run for as a write-in candidate for Florida House District 91 (beach-front property from Palm Beach to Miami ... i.e., very rich and very Republican). So why would this be an issue?

Maria filed her papers with many errors. Her address is wrong(?) and she provided quite incomplete financial disclosure. But by doing so as the only Democrat for that district and by having her application accepted in spite of her errors, the filing would excluded Democratic and Independent participation in the Republican primary for that seat. The filing would also forced a general election to be held (at a cost to local taxpayers of $175,000) in which only the name of the successful primary Republican would appear on the general election ballot. Maria's name, while a qualified write-in, would not actually appear on that ballot. Only the winning Repubican's name will appear. Essentially, an election with a single candidate. But is this a problem?

Actually yes under Florida law. Florida law provides that when all candidates are from a single party, all voters can vote in that election, the theory being that this single party primary is actually in reality the general election. So what Maria's would do is not only force this waste of $175,000 of taxpayer money, but would also precluded any citizen participation in the selection of their representative from anyone who is not a Republican. The suggestion of course is that Ms. Perez is a Republican plant, but why would the Republican "machine" be involved in this? Wouldn't any Republican be sufficient? Not quite.

It seems that party locals support the more right-wing Oliver Parker, while the more centrist Ellyn Bogdanoff has run a broader campaign that will be more acceptable to the general electorate, clearly thinkng that the Republican primary for her district would actually serve as the general election. Ms. Perez, an unknown among the local Democratic Party, initially said that she understood nothing of any of this has now decided to refuse all media contact. (Links via Counterspin Central.)

Update: A day after she was accused of fraud in a lawsuit, write-in candidate Ms. Perez asked to have her name removed from the election, indicating that, "If elected, I will not serve." While intitially there was some concern as to whether this could actually be done, the election board has now indicated that they will honor her request for removal, thereby re-openning the primary to all voters.

The mystery remains however as to whether or not this was actually an attempt to close the Republican primary. It should be noted however that this action is totally legal under current Florida election law. To that end, Democratic Senators Skip Campbell of Fort Lauderdale and David Aronberg of West Palm Beach have filed a bill in the Florida legislature to close the "write-in loophole".

Of course, such election scamming has a long and proud tradition in Florida. Even my recently-posted "" pales in comparison to the Democratic vote scams of the early 70's in South Florida, during which votes were frequently never even counted, but rather were simply replaced with pre-determined results. The book that tells this remarkable story is called VoteScam. The first eight chapters of this book are serialized here. You can also read an afterward by the daughter of one of the authors here, as well as purchase the book and an associated video. This is really amazing stuff, even if you only read the segments available on-line.

If I might editorialize a bit here: We who are black box advocates large come from the left. It is important to note however that over-zealous Republicans have hardly cornered the market on vote scamming. Both parties, especially when either gains a firm advantage in an area, tend to find similar over-zealousness from among their membership. It will hardly do to simply replace vote scamming by one party with vote scamming by the other. Vote scamming is no more right because you benefit from it than it is when you do not.

Wednesday, December 10, 2003
An additional $830 million for improving voting systems has become available to states and localities now that the Senate has confirmed members of the new Election Advisory Commission. The commission is to provide advice on technology, election standards and other steps to improve voting integrity. Although Congress initially allocated $1.5 billion in the 2003 budget year for election reform, the $830 million was withheld pending the selection and seating of commission members.

The commission is made up of four members, two selected by Republicans and two by Democrats. The four commissioners selected are Paul DeGregorio of the International Foundation for Election Systems; Gracia Hillman, former senior coordinator of international women's issues at the State Department; Raymundo Martinez III, a Clinton administration presidential assistant for intergovernmental affairs; and Deforest Soaries Jr., former New Jersey Secretary of State.

Congressional leaders also decided to add $1 billion for election system reform to the 2004 budget, the second year of a program envisioned to conclude in 2005. This was up from an originally-requested $500 million for the 2004 budget years.

Presidential candidate Dennis J. Kucinich has called the Department of Defense awarding of a contract for a new system for electronic voting for military personnel living overseas to the firm that was at the heart of the Enron accounting scandal inherently flawed and unacceptable. The contract was awarded to Accenture, formerly called Arthur Anderson Consulting, now rebranded and based in Bermuda. It has had numerous failings in its operation of government contracted computer systems by "running up excessive charges, failing to meet basic system criteria, having incomplete or duplicate records, and long backlogs."
While voting services for our servicemen and women should be improved, contracting out this work to the very company at the heart of the Enron accounting scandal is unacceptable," stated Kucinich. "Arthur Andersen couldn't count Enron's dollars, why should we trust its progeny, Accenture, to count the votes of our military personnel.

While it would be convenient for personnel to use a computer in an Internet café or library where they are stationed overseas, the security and ownership of those computers is completely unknown," continued Kucinich. "It is too much to ask any American citizen to trust the privacy of their vote to an unknown computer in an unknown overseas location with unknown ownership. Our service members serving overseas deserve to cast their votes with the same privacy and security that every citizen here in the states does. This plan is nothing short of outsourcing the 2000 Florida election debacle overseas.

Privatizing the counting of votes? To a Bermuda corporation? Whatever happened to the federal requirement for transparency? How can we expect these people to run our laws when they either don't know what they are or don't care?
In a speech last Saturday, Democratic presidential candidate John Edwards called on President Bush to return more than $100,000 donated to his campaign by a Walden O'Dell, head of Diebold Election Systems, saying the relationship could damage confidence in elections. According to the New York Times, O'Dell wrote a letter to Republican contributors in August that said "I am committed to helping Ohio deliver its electoral votes to the president next year." Said Edwards, "people who make voting machines need to be real careful when they talk about delivering elections."

Edwards also took a swipe at the touch screen voting machines made by Diebold, which some computer experts have questioned as lacking adequate security, saying, "We now have touch screen voting machines that some people think are just as bad as a butterfly ballot."

Robert X. Cringely writes an important review of the current state of the elctronic voting, essentialy viewing it as an information technology (IT) project subject to the same failures so common to IT projects in general:
In the case of this voting fiasco, there was a wonderful confluence of events. There was a vague product requirement coming from an agency that doesn't really understand technology (the U.S. Congress), foisting a system on other government agencies that may not have asked for it. There was a relatively small time frame for development and a lot of money. Finally, the government did not allow for even the notion of failure. By 2004, darn it, we'd all have touch screen voting.

Oh, and there are only three vendors, all of whom have precisely the same motivation (to make as much money as possible) and understanding (that Congress would buy its way out of technical trouble if it had to). This gave the vendors every reason to put their third string people on the project because doing so would mean more profit, not less.

One definition of insanity is doing the same thing over and over again, somehow expecting a different outcome. In this instance, the issue isn't whether Diebold and the other vendors were insane (they aren't), but whether the government is.

As Cringely correctly points out, complete failures are common in IT projects, and at least some failure occurs in a large majority of all IT projects. Even successful IT projects rarely come in on time, and almost never come in on budget. (I have only seen one major IT project do this during my 40 year involvement in IT.) Now, there are many reasons why IT projects fail, but perhaps the single reason that will guarantee failure is a lack of complete involvement by the end user from the very start of the project. Certainly, this is the exact case with the development of e-voting machines. In fact, there was zero involvement by the end user until it was time to buy what the e-vote manufacturers had developed.

Finally, Cringely asks the obvious question: Who exactly made the decision not to include a paper trail in these machines? This I think is obvious: the manufacturers themselves. Not only that, but each of the early arrivals made the same decision simultaneously, without consultation with each other, and for the exact same reasons. First, the market for these machines opened quite suddenly, and because of the large federal infusion of cash, sales were sure to be brisk. Given the short timeframe, whoever got to this market first would likely take the lion's share of this cash. How better to get there first than to trim product specifications in every possible way including the elimination of a paper audit. Certainly, there was nothing in the federal specifications barring this, and it would have the additional benefit of making the end product more price competitive. And further, since the end user was not particularly computer literate (having not been involved in the development process), they could be counted on to not notice the lack of auditability. If they suddenly became aware of it, that also would be no problem, as the manufacturers could then simply retrofit their already sold systems, generating additional profits in the process. In other words, things happened this way because it was the only way in which they could happen.

Via Election Law Blog, a great resource for current news on all aspects of election law.

Tuesday, December 09, 2003
Important Notice:

Black Box Activist Bev Harris will be interviewed on the Mary Anne Williamson Show on Wednesday, December 10, 2003. The show will air from 3-5 P.M. EST, and is available on the internet via streaming feeds for WinAmp, Windows Media Player, and RealPlayer. All feeds support dial-up modems.

Note that the Thom Hartman Radio Show precedes this program (M-F, Noon-3 P.M.) on the same internet feed. It you haven't tuned in to Thom's program yet, check it out. [Other feeds for Thom's program (both live and archived) are available here.]

Also, two previous interviews (BuzzFlash) with Bev:
  • December 4, 2003: On Diebold harassment, her new book, and the shortcomings of H.R. 2239
  • September 29, 2003: On four ways that e-vote machines threaten democracy, e-vote companies and their interrelationships, and particulars regarding Diebold problems
U.S. Senator Bob Graham filed a bill Tuesday that would require touch-screen voting machines to create a paper record of all votes. In addition to a paper record, the Voter Verification Act would require surprise recounts in one half of one percent of voting jurisdictions. Precincts would have to have equipment in place to produce paper records by the 2004 presidential election. The bill mirrors a similar bill sponsored by Rep. Rush Holt of New Jersey, now pending in the House.

[NOTE: As of this writing, Sen. Graham's bill is not yet listed on Thomas.]

Apparently Florida Secretary of State Glenda Hood2 doesn't agree with California Secretary of State Kevin Shelley's recent decision to require e-vote paper-trails by 2006. While Hood says that Florida will be "very open-minded" in reviewing any printers submitted to the state for certification, the choice on whether to use them (if certified) would be left to the individual counties. Hood said making a paper trail a statewide requirement is not necessary because Florida has multiple safeguards to assure the accuracy and security of touch screens, which are now used in 15 Florida other counties 2. This position echoes the position of the Florida State Association of Supervisors of Elections, which issued a six-page statement last month defending touch screens and their reliability. Among the concerns expressed by this group are access for voters who are disabled and non-English speaking voters, issues also brought up by the equivalent organization in California. Other concerns expressed include paper jams, running out of ink and paper, and additional labor and costs.3 The Florida supervisors' report also accuses touch-screen critics of "committing a huge disservice to the voting public. The continued unfounded attacks on these systems erode the public's confidence."

1 Glenda Hood of course replaced Katherine Harris as Florida's Secretary of State. Harris was (almost) single-handedly responsible for the illegal disenfranchisement of over 65,000 black voters during the Florida 2000 election. For this, she was elected to the U.S. House in 2002, the same year that Jeb Bush was re-elected as Florida's governor. The disenfranchised black voters were not restored to Florida's voting roles until 2003. [See Katherine Harris below]
2 Palm Beach County uses Sequoia e-voting machines. Of Florida's 14 other counties currently using e-vote technology, 11 of them use ES&S. Thirty counties use Diebold's optical-scan system, but none has purchased the touch-screen version. In all, some 56.6 percent of the state's 9.4 million registered voters will face the Sequoia or ES&S touch-screen systems (so far) when they go to the polls next November.
3 Sequoia indicates that a ballot printer would add about $500 to the cost of an electronic voting machine.

Pardon my rant: So Florida's arguments against paper ballot back-up (at least its stated ones thus far) are threefold:
  1. Access for handicapped and non-English voters
  2. Advocate groups eroding the public's confidence
  3. Additional costs and possible problems
All of this is nonsense. In the first case, the problem is purely a technical one, and for most of it, technical solutions already exist. In the rare cases where technical solutions might not yet be readily available, certainly no one would advocate against using older technologies to allow enfranchisement of affected voters. In a most real sense, black box advocacy is all about full enfranchisement of voters. For this to be to be realized, not only must all have access to the ballot as well as that all cast ballots must be accurately counted.

This of course brings me to their second point about advocate groups eroding public confidence. This is true. In fact, it is our only possible strategy. But according to the Supervisors of Elections' statement, the public's confidence is the real goal, and not that the public's confidence be well-founded. This logic baffles me. It suggests strongly that there is a serious disconnect somewhere; that their majority does not really understand what their job goals are.

Finally, the additional costs and problems. Certainly, there are additional costs, but these come with an important additional benefit; namely that voters can begin to have real confidence in their elections as opposed to a lulled and disassociated confidence. As for additional problems with the e-vote machine's printing performance, these are or should be procedural. To the extent that they are not, they are manufacturing problems, and should be addressed and paid for by the manufacturers. There is simply NO reason why multimillion dollar computer purchases should be conducted without what is called "maintenance contracts" which place the risks of malfunction on the manufacturer. While this seems to be the case with as far as I can see, the Diebold/Georgia 2002 case [Black Box Voting, download the PDFs or purchase the book] certainly indicates a lack of adequate sophistication on the part of states for properly constructing these contracts.

So the Florida arguments against paper ballot back-up are moot. They are either the strawmen of avoidence, or they are simply symptoms of how much more education we black box advocates have a lot of education left to do, even among our supposedly best educated.

Katherine Harris

Harris, a first term U.S. House Representative, is now eyeing a run for the U.S. Senate seat being vacated by Democrat Bob Graham, a move being similarly eyed by both the left and the right. Beltway Republicans fear that her candidacy for the Senate might generate a large Democratic backlash in Florida as a result of the 2000 election there, perhaps costing Bush the state and possibly the election itself, but Governor Jeb (the President's brother) has issued a stern warning about the national party overly interfering in state matters. Florida Democrats, on the other hand, welcome the entry of Harris for the Senate seat, hoping for exactly what the Beltway Republicans fear. Florida is after all a microcosm of the U.S. with simply north and south reversed.

Such polarization for the Florida vote can be easily envisioned by anyone familiar with the Harris role in denying the Gore-requested recounts of 2000. As polarizing as her role in this might be, this is after the 2000 election took place. Few understand Harris' role before the election, a role that had she not played, the aftermath would never have occurred. All of this is well documented in Chapter One (The Unreported Story of How They Fixed the Vote in Florida) of Greg Palast's new edition of "The Best Democracy Money Can Buy", a chapter also serialized on Working Assets. If you don't know who Harris is yet, read this. It will knock your socks off.

Katherine Harris is now a U.S. Representative for the State of Florida. She should not be. She should instead be one of our felons, disenfranchised as she suceeded in making so many others without proper cause.
Florida has made many changes to election procedures as state elections officials try to avoid a repeat of the Florida Election 2000 fiasco. Many of the changes standardize definitions of voter intent, define what actually constitutes a vote, and establish stricter procedures for how canvassing boards will proceed with recounts.
Some of the changes are fairly straightforward: The statewide Elections Canvassing Commission will now be composed of elected officials only, rather than including the appointed director of the Division of Elections. The secretary of state - now an appointed position - will not be part of that board, either. Instead, the board consists of the governor and two Cabinet members appointed by the governor.

The controversy surrounding former Secretary of State Katherine Harris and her refusal to recuse herself from the state Canvassing Commission after endorsing George W. Bush led to efforts that would ban such practices and make county supervisors of elections nonpartisan seats. State lawmakers didn't address either reform despite evidence of strong public support for them in surveys.

Gov. Jeb Bush did recused himself from the state Canvassing Commission in the 2000 election of his brother, but it is not known whether he will do so again in 2004. If he does however, it still falls to him to name his replacement.
Sunday, December 07, 2003
Canceling the Party.
Washington State has become the eighth state to cancel it's 2004 Presidential primary, citing it as overly expensive in a state which is facing severe budgetary woes. The decision, which was made Friday, has been anticipated for some time. Other states also cancelling their primaries have expressed different rationales as being their lead reason for doing so, but the budgetary aspect is generally cited as at least a benefit, if not the primary motivation.

All of this comes as no great loss to me. I am no fan of the primary system (especially with its multitudes of variations), and I do not believe that states should be financing in any way (esp., using general tax revenues) what is essentially a private decision by the individual parties as to who should represent them. I am not against the parties themselves using a state-wide vote to determine this; that is their option. But do I believe that they themselves should pay the associated costs should they select this option, and not leave the tab to be picked up by voters of whom are many are not enfranchised in these selections.

Though this is my first public statement addressing this issue, I have previously mentioned my views on this to active voters and even party activists (both major parties), and given my "howls" for the "purity" of the vote, most are surprised that I hold this view. Wouldn't this, they've asked, disempower the very voters that I otherwise am seeking to protect? Perhaps, but no, not really. Allow me to expand on this.

First, a matter of business: I am a registered independent and always have been. I tend to vote liberal, and that generally leads me to favor Democrats. I have never been a registered voter in a state that allows cross-party voting during a primary. (More on this below.)

As I mentioned above, I do not see any reason why tax revenues should be spent on the selection of who will represent a private political party in a general election. Doing so is nothing short of a subsidy of what private party. But let's look at this in terms of how it plays out in the various primary systems:

  • The caucus: Activists from individual parties have an overwhelming control in the selection of that state's selection of their party candidates. If you also want to participate, you need only become a party activist there. Fair enough, and I approve.

  • Cross-party voting during primaries: This system makes no sense to me. If you are not a member of the party, why should you have any say? I disapprove entirely.

  • Party members only and binding: In this system, the vote by party members leads to the selection of delegates to the national convention that are bound (on the first round vote only) to vote according to the voters' wishes. An improvement, but subject to massive abuse. Simply look to the upcoming election for the perfect example of this. A strong incumbent (Bush) allows Republicans to re-register as Democrats simply to screw with the Democrats' selection process. Better than the cross-party implementation, but clearly not adequate. I disapprove.

  • Party members only, but non-binding: This is pure nonsense, and it is the system used by Washington State. This is not a vote; it is a taxpayer financed poll. I disapprove entirely.
These are pretty much the four choices we use in primaries, and might suggest to some that I think the caucus system is the only viable system for selecting party nominees. This is not the case. As I said above, parties should pay for their own private elections should they wish to have them. In doing so, they should also have complete control of who is actually consider a member of the party and who is not. This would allow them to weed out those who might have recently switched parties solely to tamper with their selection process. In fact, I would greatly prefer this over the caucus process, though either would be fine with me.

At this point of course, many would suggest that the caucus sytem would overwhelm any party-paid voting system, and I too would expect that to become the case. Many would say that this is a form of disenfranchisement, but it is not. Party voting is not general election voting; it cannot select a government official. It can only select a candidate. The fear here is that the selected candidates will increasingly become unreflective of the will of the party's rank-and-file voters. So what? To the extent that a party does this, they will move towards irrelevancy. In other words, they will die.

Political parties are Social Darwinist in nature. They have a will to survive. Those not satisfied will move on, and when enough do, the party will move to recapture them. For those who remain, they will move also simply for self-preservation. They have no choice. It's either move or die. And if they die, something else more effective with arise to replace them.

Tuesday, December 02, 2003
Letters From the Editor
To: Paul Krugman
Thank you for addressing this issue, and thank you especially for your mention of Bev Harris, who must be viewed as almost "the grandmother" of this issue. It was perhaps two years ago that she brought me "into the fold" on this, and certainly she had years of work behind her that preceded my entry into this issue.

Please let me assure you that this is not just the fears of a bunch of technophobes. I myself have been into computers for 40 years (vacuum tubes, anyone?) I know what makes computer systems good and bad, and I have myself been inside of the Diebold code. Yes, I am aware that Diebold has said that "our version" of it is out of date, and I have no doubt of that; all computer coding is in a constant state of adaptation. Still, it is my professional opinion that "their version" of it could not be worse, and that nothing short of a total re-design can fix its inherent design flaws. If it were designed with hacking as a requirement, not a single line of code would have to be changed.

I point my fangs at Diebold here because they have made themselves such an obvious target with their "circle the wagons" approach to this conflict. But the fact of the matter is that the entire e-vote industry is rife with cross-breeding, and there is little evidence that Diebold's problems are unique unto itself. Certainly other e-vote companies have responded far more effectively to our concerns (which we appreciate), but there remains among us a well-founded sense that we may have some pretty vulnerable software counting our votes. And this is simply unacceptable.

Many try to phrase this as a partisan issue, given that the e-vote manufacturers are largely Republican owned. I personally reject this framing. I would just as soon toss a Democrat guilty of vote tampering in jail as a Republican. It is after all my vote! It is my most sacred right as a member of a democratic republic. Whether one steals it from me to "help" me or steals it for my opponents, it is stolen nonetheless. I cannot differentiate between the two.


Diebold: Bless me Father, for I have sinned ...
Well, actually not, but a Diebold attorney promised in a conference call Monday with U.S. District Judge Jeremy Fogel that it would not sue dozens of students, computer scientists and ISP operators who received cease-and-desist letters from August to October. This is a fantastic (though inevitable) victory for us black box advocates. More than that however, it was simply the right thing for Diebold to do. According to my latest estimates, there were easily a half million copies of the Diebold memo data base downloaded, and as such, continuing their legal approach had really become an exercise in futility.

Were I to guess at this point, this has all the trappings of Diebold corporate coming down on Diebold Election Systems, who had clearly let this issue spin out of their control. It is after all about profits, and not about getting into a cat fight with cats that were not about to give up. Hopefully, this signals a new willingness on the part of Diebold Election Systems to work with us. It is after all about making them have a better product, and that of course is in their long term best interests.


Big Media Bev
This is big time. All those articles that mentioned the John Hopkins (quite limited) study of the Diebold code, but never mentioned where they got it from or the more advanced work that had been done prior to their study? You remember them. Bev Harris and her cohorts were after all not "experts", and so did not deserve editorial mention. Until now.

How times have changed. In today's New York Times, none other than Paul Krugman puts Bev right in the spotlight in his "Hack the Vote" editorial. We're not on the margins anymore. We are now mainstreamed.

Read the editorial, take a visit to Bev's site, and if you are so inclined, drop her an e-mail to say thank you for all that she has done.

Big Media Matt
... also pipes in on the Krugman article. Not much from Matt, who admits an aversion to the issue, but the comments (including my rather lengthy one) might be of interest to you.
Wednesday, November 26, 2003
Oops! Diebold can't be happy about this!
After all of their recent efforts to prevent their code and internal memos from being distributed on the internet via "take down" actions, Presidential-hopeful Dennis Kucinich has decided to publish selected incriminating Diebold memos on his House website as he launches an investigation of their possible vilations of federal elections laws.

OK, Diebold, what's next? Are you planning to issue a "take down" for

Via Cyndy Roy at American Samizdat

This probably doesn't make any difference. Diebold is a large company offering many products beyond their e-vote machines, and each division is responsible for their own security vulnerabilities. But Diebold ATMs were compromised by the Nachi worm in August. If this means anything for voting security advocates, it means that truely talented security professions are in short order.
California Gets E-Vote Paper Trails ... maybe
California Secretary of State Kevin Shelley announced Friday that all e-voting machines in the state must produce a voter-verifiable paper audit trail. According to his announcement, any e-voting machines purchased after July 1, 2005, must produce a voter-verifiable receipt. Machines purchased before then must be retrofitted with printers to produce a receipt by July 1, 2006.

Obviously however, some folks just don't get it, and this time it is the California Association of Clerks and Election Officials (CACEO). Claiming that Shelley had "overstepped his bounds", CACEO head and Shasta County Clerk Ann Reed called the decision "a major defeat for the disabled community, as well as the minority-language communities." Riverside County Registrar of Voters Mischelle Townsend said she could not say yet whether the CACEO would pursue legal action against the state, but the group will be meeting next week to discuss its response.

Comments: Groups like CACEO perhaps are our greatest hurdle because they are the people charged with running our elections (and purchasing this technology). Unfortunately, many of these people are simply in over their heads when it comes to technology issues.

CACEO is of course correct to be concerned with disability and minority-language access to the voting booth. The problem is that they view such access to be unaddressible by technology, when clearly it is not. Whatever solutions have been implemented to provide for these concerns on e-vote machines without printers can certainly be extended to e-vote machines with printers, and if to any extent it might not, no one would object to alternative methods of providing voting booth access to those with problems.

And this is the problem. We have thousands of people making these decisions on e-vote technology when too few of them have and understanding of the technology itself. In business when a similar problem is encountered, the solution is obvious: Hire a consultant to evaluate the options and separate real from imagined problems. The problem is that qualified consultants are quite expensive, and when product selection is at a county level, they are simply too expense. In Maryland, where the product selection was conducted at the state level, the consultant option was indeed used, and though I've previously expressed my reservations regarding what I consider to be their premature selection of Diebold, they at least appear to be on the right track on the security problems they face as a result of that selection.

Wednesday, November 19, 2003
From the Archives: "None Dare Call It Treason"
Perhaps the best on-line article covering Bush v. Gore, the Supreme Court case that handed Bush the presidency. Originally published in The Nation on February 5, 2001, Vincent Bugliosi's article is a classic. If you missed it back then or just want to reread it, this is where to do it.
Monday, November 17, 2003
Short Takes:
  • Apparently Gore Vidal doesn't think too much of E-Voting either. This interview is a worthwhile read for many reasons, but his comments on E-Voting are close to the end of it.

  • According to two political scientists at Spelman College and Western Carolina University, voter turnout is directly affected by the distance voters live from their polling place. Moshe Haspel and H. Gibbs Knotts also suggest that "unscrupulous election officials could manipulate election results by rejiggering the locations of precincts to increase or decrease turnout in certain neighborhoods."

  • Residents of Leeds and the Thousand Islands Township in Canada don’t go to the polls to vote anymore. They vote by mail and have found that the method substantially increases voter participation.
Boone County, Indiana election officials reported a serious overvote problem in their recent election when computers there showed approximately 144,000 votes cast. The problem was almost certainly a software error, as a lengthy collaboration between the county's information technology director and advisers from the MicroVote software producer (Google search) fixed the problem. The corrected totals for the county showed a total of 5,352 ballots cast from a pool of fewer than 19,000 registered voters.

Update: It turns out that the problem in Boone County was not a software problem after all. As The London News Review reports (why do I have to go to England to find this?), the MicroVote software requires each machine to be "reset" between elections, and requires all new machines added to also be "reset". Apparently, Boone County election staffers did not do this, hence the error. MicroVote thus dismisses this as user error, but apparently this has happened before with their system (Montgomery County, PA (1995) ~ Initial Report and MicroVote's Rebuttal).

So no, it was not a software problem, because the software worked exactly as designed, ... which makes it a design problem in spite of MicroVote's protestations of innocence. Allow me to put on my "design cap" for a moment, because I've mentioned this before.

Computer types love to design systems. It's one of their favorite things to do. But left to their own devices (as in little user input), they tend to design systems that are easy for people like themselves to use, but not necessarily easy for others unfamiliar with the details of their systems to use. And that is exactly what happened in these instances. It is all too easy for them to claim "dumb user", when in fact the real case is the dumb designer who did not take into account his "dumb user".

Yet this is the exact environment in which these machines will be used. A flurry of temps are hired before each election, and somehow all of these people are expected to suddenly understand and perfectly execute the system designers' intent. The real world simply does not work that way, and any designer who expects it to is a fool.

But read the News Review report because it's got a lot more links than I've used here.

Wednesday, November 12, 2003
More on California's Diebold certification:
Wired News is out with two more articles on the California Diebold controversy. In "Suspect Code Used in State Votes" (11/6), Wired provides additional specifics on the "scandal". Meanwhile, efforts to determine exactly what software was changed and when continue.

In the late-breaking "E-Vote Firm's Bill Comes Due" (11/11), California has announced that it will not continue with the certification of Diebold voting machines until the company pays for an audit of all the company's voting machines used in the state. The halt in Diebold certification is causing problems for counties that have selected Diebold, but California election officials would "rather err on the side of inconvenience and delay."

Walden W. O'Dell, a longtime Republican, is a member of President Bush's "Rangers and Pioneers", an elite group of loyalists who have raised at least $100,000 each for the 2004 race. In mid-August, Walter sat down at his computer to compose a letter inviting 100 wealthy and politically inclined friends to a Republican Party fund-raiser, to be held at his home in a suburb of Columbus, Ohio. "I am committed to helping Ohio deliver its electoral votes to the president next year," he wrote. Pretty typical stuff for a Republican fund raiser. Only one problem: Walter is also the CEO of Diebold, Inc., owner of Diebold Election Systems.

So starts this extensive New York Times article, which runs through a host of other problems Diebold has faced lately (the Hopkins/Rice study [239 KB, PDF], the FTP-software discovery, the leaked e-mails, and the Maryland/SAIC study (See "Did I say that?" below). Over all, a good "go to" article for anyone just getting into the Diebold e-vote issue.

 Other Diebold Election Systems in the News:

Did I say that?
Did I say that Maryland "got it" while Georgia didn't? Well, let me back off a little and say that Maryland got it better than Georgia did, but still doesn't quite get it.

Let me explain further my feelings on the Maryland Risk Assessment Report [Body (1.25 MB, PDF), Appendix B (response to the Hopkins/Rice study, 700 KB, PDF)]. While this was a good study in that it highlighted many important vulnerabilities, it missed two critical issues:

  1. It addressed security vulnerabilities as if Maryland election workers were honest. Now I am not suggesting that they are not, but it is a far more trivial problem to design and build a secure system when you assume employee honesty. It is much harder when you have to provide for the possibility of employee dishonesty. This is especially troublesome in voting systems because a large influx of temporary workers are hired only for a particular election.

  2. It failed to address the fact that this software simply shouldn't have all of these problems!. Let me explain. You're sitting in front of your computer. It's a pain in the ass. Software doesn't always work right. It crashes, sometimes with no apparent cause. But this is just what computers are like, right?

    No, they're not! If computers were like that, they never would have gotten this far. But it is apparent that the authors of this report think that they are, and that is simply a bad assumption. Here's the difference:

    • Your home computer: It runs on an operating system (O/S) that can run on many different computers. Each of those computers has a different set of input/output (I/O) devices attached, and more can be added or deleted per your needs. Your O/S will run thousands of different programs, each with different needs. It can run several dozen of these simultaneously (multi-tasking). It handles dozens of different communication protocols, some local (your printer, your DVD, etc.) and some remote (your home network, the internet, etc.) And all of this stuff goes on simultaneously. Pretty amazing. And consider also that you can buy one of these for less than $1,000, the O/S and your programs being a small fraction of that purchase price. And you wonder why your home computer is tempermental at times? Easy. You get what you pay for.

    • Now contrast that with a touch pad voting computer: First, hundreds and perhaps thousands of identical touch pads are purchased at a single time. Each of these runs at most four programs: Receive the ballot, record the vote, (perhaps) transmit the results, and (perhaps) run in test mode. And none of these run simultaneously. Communications protocols? Five: Run the display, accept input, read/write hard drive, read/write votes, and (perhaps) communicate externally. Compared to your home computer, this is a walk in the park. And the price tag? Millions of dollars. So why so many problems? There is only one answer to this: incompetence.

    Clearly, touchpad voting computers should not be suffering all sorts of problems. The application is easy (in computer terms) and the price is high. And yet they do.

    So here are the key points of this situation. Maryland's purchasers of these computers have expectations of them that are consistent with their own experience with their home computers. But the authors of this study are clearly "computer professionals". As such, they should have written this study from the perspective of their own experience and expectations, and not from the perspective of the experience and expectations of their client. But they did not. Why?

Which gets me back to my problem with Maryland. It seems that Republican Governor Robert L. Ehrlich Jr. has given the "go ahead" to purchase Diebold voting machines for the entire state. Now clearly, the SAIC study gives the him the room to do so in so far as one assumes it to be complete, but as I have pointed out, it clearly is not. What Maryland has in effect chosen to do then is allow Diebold's problems to become their own, and this is certainly no way to write a contract for computer products and services.
On a side note, no sooner than Ehrlich got done giving the go ahead on the state-wide Diebold installation than it was learned that Gilbert J. Genn, a well-known Annapolis lobbyist, represents two companies involved in the overhaul of the state's voting machine system. Mr. Genn, a former Montgomery County delegate, is registered as a lobbyist for Diebold Election Systems Inc., the company that has a $55 million contract to provide the state with its electronic voting system, and Science Applications International Corp., the computer security company the state recently hired to examine the Diebold voting machines for flaws. Ehrlich has ordered an investigation.

What a way to run an election. As the Washington Post, suggests, "Why leap?"

Louisiana Run-off this Saturday:
Louisiana's run-off for governor will be held this Saturday (11/15). (An interesting review of the candidates is here.) Voting machines in use there during this election:
  • Two parishes use 3,992 iVotronic voting machine by ES&S. (iVotronic machines were in use during the troublesome Miami-Dade County elections in 2002, although equipment quality is not believed to have been a source of those problems.)

  • Sixty-two parishes remain on an assortment of older manual voting machines (4,272 machines total).

Senator Harris?

Voting Without a Choice
"The point of elections is to test ideas and hold officials accountable. This process is short-circuited when like-minded voters are so concentrated in districts as to render the outcome a certainty. Lack of competition amplifies ideological differences and further polarizes U.S. politics, because Republican officeholders need not answer to Democratic constituents and Democratic officeholders can ignore Republican voters."
-- Washington Post Editorial, 11/7/2003
via BushWatch

Originally published November 12, 2003

Kudos to Jim March:
When I first heard that California had halted the certification of Diebold voting machines, I wondered if Jim had heard. For any who doesn't know, Jim's a California boy and was one of the original crew that worked over the Diebold software that Bev Harris found unguarded on an FTP site.
As it turns out, Jim knew a lot about California's Diebold decision. He was the one who made it happen. Pick up PDF copies of his correspondence to and from the California election people that brought all of this about as well as his very own "take down" notice from Diebold. Good job, Jim!
And for anyone who's interested in trying out the Diebold software themselves, you can also get copies of it along with detailed test procedures from Jim's website.

Election 2003 Results á la Diebold:
Kentucky, who elected Republican Ernie Fletcher as governor by a 10-point margin, uses Diebold election machines (including touch pads) only in Jefferson County (~17% of total state population). Jefferson County however gave a 51.3%/48.6% edge to Democrat A.B. Chandler.
Mississippi, who elected Republican Haley Barbour as governor by an 8-point margin over incumbent Democrat Ronnie Musgrove, uses Diebold election machines (but not touch pads) state-wide.
A third Southern governor's race goes before the voters in Louisiana on Nov. 15. Louisiana does not use Diebold voting machines. (But see "Louisiana May Toss ES&S Touch Pads" below.)
New Jersey gave the Democrats control of the state Senate with gains in both houses of the legislature. New Jersey does not use Diebold election machines.
In major mayoral contests: Philadelphia re-elected Democrat John Street as mayor. In Houston, Republican Orlando Sanchez and Democrat Bill White are headed for a runoff. In San Francisco, Democrat Gavin Newsom and Green Party candidate Matt Gonzalez are also headed for a runoff. None of these cities use Diebold election machines.

GOP Cries Foul Over Virginia Touch Pads:
The Washington Post reports that Republican officials have filed a legal challenge to election results from Fairfax County, Virginia based on numerous problems with their touch pad voting machines during the election there Tuesday. Problems included machines that were repaired and returned to service (effectively de-certifying them), results that had to be called in or hand delivered due to server overload, and a handful of precincts even resorting to paper ballots. Regarding the repaired machines, Christopher T. Craig, attorney for the Republicans, acknowledged that the number of votes, estimated in the hundreds, "may not make any difference, but that is not the point. It's about voter integrity."
Well said, BUT: Of the 61 co-signers of the Voter Confidence and Increased Accessibility Act of 2003, none are Republicans.
Fairfax County uses Advanced Voting Solutions' WINvote touch pads (See "Who Is Advanced Voting Solutions?" below) and has approximately 550,000 registered voters. Arlington County, Virginia also uses these same machines and experienced no such problems, suggesting that the problems experienced in Fairfax were the result of human error(s). Fairfax used the WINvote equipment during the 2002 election (though Arlington did not), and had few problems with them at that time.

Louisiana May Toss ES&S Touch Pads:
The Shreveport Times is reporting that Louisiana will likely get rid of 900 new Election Systems and Software (ES&S) touch pad voting machines after approximately two-thirds of them malfunctioned, overheating and shutting down, apparently during testing. ES&S replaced the malfunctioning units, but significant problems remained with trying to tie them in with other state election equipment.
Louisiana paid $3 million for the machines which were used in two parishes in the state, and will continue to use them through the November 15th gubernatorial election there. Afterwards, the state will likely standardize voting machinery across the state, and while touch pads remain an option, the use of ES&S machines is doubtful.

Advanced Voting Solutions (AVS, formerly known as Shoup Voting Solutions) sells a line of touch pad and elections support systems and software known as WINvote. The "WIN" in WINvote stands for Wireless Information Network, which is the "technology baseline on which all components of the AVS voting system function."  AVS claims that the WIN technology "dramatically simplifies polling place procedures and enhances the security and integrity of the process." While wireless technology should theoretically simplify procedures, the Fairfax County experience indicates that it can also add complications. As for enhancing security  and integrity, WINvote technology is implemented using cellular communications. Cellular communications are quite trivial to intercept and/or divert, and the WINvote implementation of cellular requires that it be in an "always available" mode. Not only does this allow real time monitoring of election results (illegal), but also allows a reasonably sophisticated operator to alter voting results during transmission. But according to Bryan Finney, government relations coordinator for AVS, "There really is no way a hacker could break into this during the few minutes that this is up. That's a virtual impossibility." Mr. Finney clearly doesn't know how cellular technology works.
AVS is located in Frisco, Texas, and is led by President and CEO Howard T. Van Pelt, assuming these responsibilities in June, 2001. Van Pelt previously co-founded Global Election Systems (GEMS). Joining him at AVS are former GEMS manager Larry Ensminger, former GEMS field service manager Ingrid Giordano and former GEMS regional project manager Tyler Lincks. Together the three of them make up 4 of the 5 names cited on the AVS website, with the fifth being a Shoup family member. AVS apparently is GEMS reincarnated. (Note however that none of the four is on records as having made any political contributions from the 2000 election cycle forward.)
In addition to being certified in Virginia, AVS voting machines are also certified for use in California, Mississippi, and Pennsylvania. AVS is currently soliciting Arkansas. A list of all established vendors of computerized vote tabulation systems (as of 2/20/2003) can be found here.

From the archives: Chris Floyd publishes a weekly editorial column in the Moscow Times called "Global Eye". About a month back, he published an editorial on the American voting system called "Last Rights".
"It's dangerously naive to believe that such a gang, coming to power in such a fashion, will allow a legitimate electoral contest to take place next year. They have too much to lose. They haven't expended so much effort -- and so many thousands of innocent lives -- to build this vast engine of repression and profit only to turn it over to Howard Dean or John Kerry, just because the stupid American people say so."
It's definitely worth a read.

Originally published November 5, 2003

This just in from Wired News: California Halts E-Vote Certification ~ California Assistant Secretary of State Marc Carrel said that California was halting the certification process for new voting machines manufactured by (Guess who?) Diebold Election Systems after his office received "disconcerting information" that Diebold may have installed uncertified software on its touch-screen machines used in Alameda County. [The install must have gone like the one in Georgia!]
Also, two students from Swarthmore Coalition for the Digital Commons and the Online Policy Group have filed suit against Diebold Elections Systems to prevent abusive copyright claims from silencing public debate about electronic voting machines. You can read their press release here. Note that this press release also contains some links to substantial link archives of information related to the lawsuit. You can also go to the home page of the Electronic Frontier Foundation home page to find links to stories of their recent efforts to assist in this effort. [They're providing the legal talent.]

Some of the stuff below you may have run into, but it's listed for those who might not have:
  1. If you want to know if your voting district uses Diebold voting machines, (thanks, Bev) has published a list of such locations [890 KB PDF, approx. 3 minutes download on dial-up] covering both the US and Canada. This is a two-part list, the top covering locations that use any type of Diebold equipment, and the bottom covering locations using their touch pad equipment.

    [A couple of notes on this. First, while the Diebold touch pad equipment contains security vulnerabilities, their centralized vote tallying software and hardware is far more vulnerable, especially in terms deliberate wholesale tampering. Second, just because your district does not use Diebold voting machines doesn't mean that you are not exposed to similar vulnerabilities; simply that there isn't sufficient info out about these other systems to know for sure. There is sufficient information out to suspect that other manufacturers machines are vulnerable in similar fashions.]

  2. Maryland's Campaign for Verifiable Voting is a great example of what local citizen activists can do on-line when they get behind an issue like this. Lots of articles of both local and national interest.

The State of Maryland, by the way, did a serious computer systems vulnerability audit of the Diebold machines before implementation, certainly in some part due to the efforts of this group. You can get that report here [1.3 MB PDF, approx. 4 minutes download on dial-up]. Some notes on it from my review of this report:

  • The report is heavily redacted, with only 69 of the full 200 pages viewable in this download. I went through it in detail noting exactly where the redactions occurred and what would be in those sections. I have a high level of confidence that all redactions in it were made solely to protect the integrity of Maryland's implementation of the Diebold equipment.
  • This report is exactly the type of effort that needs to be made by every state/county/district implementing any voting machinery. If anything annoys me about the State of Maryland report, it is that a lot of this stuff should not have to be done by Maryland staffers; it should be in the Diebold product when sold.
As to what cannot be implemented within these machines for security vulnerabilities (they are always there in any system), the purchased system should always include a statement of the manufacturer's own understanding of his system's vulnerability along with suggested strategies for resolving them. This would be mostly an out-of-the-box document, modified here and there as appropriate for unique needs of the purchaser.
As to this last point, we're really facing two problems here. The first is the inherent system vulnerabilities in any system, and the certain need to minimize in every way the vulnerabilities to which our voting systems are exposed.
The second is the human environment in which these systems are purchased and will operate. These two aspects of this environment are critical:
  • First, most of the people involved in the purchase of these systems are simply not qualified to purchase computer systems involving high security requirements. To be truthful, most of these people cannot even envision the threats that are out there, even if they can understand the incredible security needs involved in the voting process. This leaves a gap between user expectations and the provider's ability to satisfy these. Now Maryland indeed recognized these, and took substantial action to close this gap. Maryland, if not perfect, did well. Contrast that with the Georgia implementation (Chapter 9 of the book "Black Box Voting", 120KB, PDF), and the difference is obvious. Maryland "got it" and Georgia did not. (Hail, Zell Miller.)
  • Second is the uniqueness of the voting environment itself. Most of the staffers on election day are not full time staffers, and so have little if any experience in the technology presented before them. They are "temps" with no prior experience in computer security. They are honestly trained to do what they are hired to do, and they mostly and honestly try hard, but computers have exceptions of wildly different kinds. When such exceptions occur, these people will inevitably defer to anyone who simply claims a solution to the problem. This does not necessarily have to be a person with ill motives (though it may be), but at this moment, all security of the vote is lost.

House Rep Rush Holt has introduced the Voter Confidence and Increased Accessibility Act of 2003. Among this bills provisions are requirements that all voting machines to produce a paper ballot to be used as an audit trail and for manual recounts and random audits in 0.5% of voting jurisdictions. You can go to Thomas (H.R.2239) and find the details of this bill and its current 61 co-sponsors.
This bill, while reasonably good and obviously a necessary minimum response to electronic voting machine vulnerabilities, is hardly a shoe-in. Resistance to it includes many voting supervisors and the League of Women Voters. If you would like to add your voice in support of this bill, you can sign's Resolution on Electronic Voting.

Finally a reminder that vote tampering comes in many forms. Walter Cronkite writes Rigging Elections, a look at the recent Texas redistricting fight.

Originally published November 4, 2003

Much to offer today. We are getting a lot of coverage and folks are starting to notice. First, two personal stories from Palm Beach County:
  1. One of my local TV stations carried a very good segment on touch screen voting machines on their Sunday 11 P.M. News program. This ran approximately 8 minutes (very long segment for them) and was surprisingly good. Both sides were presented fairly (Rebecca Mercuri was cited several times), but the segment opened and closed with an older woman very afraid of her vote, and so the impression was definitely left that there might be a serious problem.

  2. On the subject of older women, my mother (who lives in a retirement community of about 20,000) had a visit from a neighbor this weekend. There was some chatting about voting which led this woman into asking my mother if she would be willing to use an absentee ballot in the coming elections. So we clearly we are starting to have an impact among our seniors, and this is certainly good news.
On to news from the internet:
  1. The New York Times is out with a major (5 page) article on the Diebold memos controversy: File Sharing Pits Copyright Against Free Speech. Lots of good stuff here of course.

  2. The Diebold memos controversy coverage continues at Why War with weekend updates. While Diebold continues with its "take down" requests, there are now over 40 active mirrors on campuses around the country with estimated copies of the data base from some of the earlier mirrors running over 30,000.

  3. Along with this, the Online Policy Group (a non-profit internet provider) has also received a take down request but has decided to defy it. You can read their Diebold take down request here and their own response to it here. This is a lot more than just a bunch of legal mumbo-jumbo. between the two memos, you'll get a very good framing of the copyright vs. free speech argument.

One more very significant item to report: Wired News now reports (E-Vote Software Leaked Online) that the voting machine software for Sequoia Voting Systems was left on an unprotected FTP server during the recent California recall election and copies of it were obtained from there. I have no idea who has these copies as yet, so if anyone knows how to get them, please let me know.

Originally published November 3, 2003

Diebold Legal Action Backfires:
Diebold warns on electronic voting papers ~ Black Box Voting goes big time with this article from the Boston Globe/Associated Press. This AP story provides some good background on the current fight over some 31,000 pages of Diebold internal e-mail and documents that show (among other things) deliberate (and illegal) efforts by Diebold to defraud the State of Georgia (for whom they supply electronic voting software and equipment) by avoiding mandatory recertification of modifications. Some comments:
  • About a third of the way down, activist Jim March is mentioned as one of the leaders in this fight. I was glad to see him mentioned, as I've been working with him on and off for a number of months.

  • About two-thirds of the way down, the AP states, "... it is not known how many copies exist." From my own scan of the controversy, I would have to estimate that there are at least 10,000 copies of this (11 MB) data base now in private hands, and I would not be surprised if their were many times more than that. [UPDATE: The latest estimate I've seen is 50 thousand copies, and that was based on site stats from only the first three mirrors.]

  • A mention of Swarthmore College (where I got my copy from) concludes the article. The college has forced students to remove the data base, and has told students that even accessing sites with links to it will be grounds for forfeiture of computer access. Much more about this in the following article.

  • Note that this story was also carried by the LA Times, the Washington Post, and Newsday, as well as dozens of other newspapers around the country. The story has also been picked up by the Canadian and European presses.
Targeting Diebold with Electronic Civil Disobedience ~ weighs in on the fray with a weblog-type format on the now eight day old effort by students across the nation to provide access to the Diebold data base. Diebold has its hands full, as indicated by this last entry indicates: "Amherst and MIT have received cease-desist letters. New mirrors are now up at UNC, Duke, Berkeley, NCSU and U Penn."  Note that this page currently lists URLs for 18 mirror sites of the data base a well as linking to lots of other articles on this.
Diebold Memos Disclose Florida 2000 E-Voting Fraud ~ Scoop presents a very detailed look into the Volusia County (FL) vote fraud during the 2000 Presidential Election in which a Diebold memory card registered a 16,022 negative vote for Al Gore. (It was the entry of this card that caused Al Gore's early concession, a concession he later retracted when the erroneous tally was removed.) Included in this report are emails from Florida election officials and Diebold representatives as well as and extract from CBS's own analysis of their mistaken call of Florida for Bush. Lot's of red meat in this one.

Originally published October 29, 2003

Tuesday, November 11, 2003
* * * End of Black Box Notes * * *

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